FreeNas 8.3 - Creating a RAID volume and Configure iSCSI

FreeNAS is a tiny Open Source FreeBSD-based operating system which provides free Network-Attached Storage (NAS) services (CIFS, FTP, NFS, ...). It supports sharing across Windows, Apple, and UNIX-like systems.

FreeNAS 8 includes ZFS, which supports high storage capacities and integrates file systems and volume management into a single piece of software.


In the following post I will cover the following points:
  • Introduction
  • Terminology
  • Raid Volume Configuration
    • Connecting to the FreeNas HTTP Interface
    • Creating the RAID Volume
  • iSCSI Configuration
    • Adding a Portal
    • Adding an Initiator
    • Adding a Target
    • Adding a File Extent
    • Adding a Target / Extent association
    • Enabling the iSCSI Service
  • Configuring the iSCSI Initiator on VMware vSphere 5.1


Using FreeNAS 8.3, I need to create a RAID Volume, configure iSCSI and present it to my VMware VSphere 5.1 environment.

Note: If you are not familiar with some of the iSCSI terms used below (target, initiator, extent...) please check the following webpage: http://doc.freenas.org/index.php/ISCSI

Overview of my iSCSI Lab Architecture


ZFS: is a combined file system and logical volume manager designed by Sun Microsystems. The features of ZFS include protection against data corruption, support for high storage capacities, integration of the concepts of filesystem and volume management, snapshots and copy-on-write clones, continuous integrity checking and automatic repair, RAID-Z and native NFSv4 ACLs. ZFS is implemented as open-source software, licensed under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL). -wikipedia-

RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks is a storage technology that combines multiple disk drive components into a logical unit. Data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways called "RAID levels", depending on the level of redundancy and performance required. -wikipedia-

iSCSI: iSCSI stands for Internet Small Computer System Interface.
It's an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities.
iSCSI is used to facilitate data transfers over a network (LAN, WAN or Internet) and transferring data by carrying SCSI commands over IP networks. iSCSI leverages the Ethernet network and does not require any specialized hardware. The iSCSI protocol is fully documented by the RFC 3720 and RFC 3721

iSCSI Target Server: is the server that shares the storage, it runs the iSCSI Target. The server (machine) consumes the storage is called iSCSI initiator.

iSCSI Portal: is a targets IP and TCP port number pair. Typically, if the port number is not specified it is defaulted to 3260.

Device Extent: A device extent allows a raw partition (volume) to be exported via iSCSI. The advantage of device extent is that they are faster than file extents. The disadvantage is that the entire volume is exported. If you only want to share a portion of a volume using iSCSI, you will need to create a file extent instead.

File Extent: A file extent allows you to export a portion of a volume. When creating a file extent, you specify a file name that iSCSI clients will have access to (similar in concept to a mount point) and the maximum size of that file (storage area). The advantage of file extents is that you can create multiple exports per volume. The disadvantage is that they are slower than device extents.

iSCSI Initiator: Typically, it is an application server. For example, iSCSI Target provides storage to a SQL server, the SQL server will be the iSCSI initiator in this deployment.

Target: It is an object which allows the iSCSI initiator to make a connection. The Target keeps track of the initiators which are allowed to be connected to it. The Target also keeps track of the iSCSI virtual disks which are associated with it. Once the initiator establishes the connection to the Target, all the iSCSI virtual disks associated with the Target will be accessible by the initiator.

IQN: iSCSI Qualified Name. It is a unique identifier of the Target or Initiator. The Target IQN is shown when it is created on the Server.

Raid Volume Configuration

1 - Connecting to the FreeNas HTTP interface 

Navigate to Storage/Volumes/Volume Manager and then click on the first button to create your new volume.

2 - Creating the RAID Volume

Enter a Volume Name, Select the disks members and choose the FileSystem and Group Type.
Here I want to create a RAID1 (mirror), I will leave the other options as default.
Additional information on RAID, ZFS

Once created, 291.4 GB are available.

iSCSI Configuration

3 - Adding a Portal

Portal Provide services on different interfaces or subnets. Can be used to configure multi-path I/O (MPIO), Network access control (Multiple NIC are required)

Navigare to Services/iSCSI/Portal and click on Add Portal

Enter a portal Comment, and select the IP Address, so this portal is available from any interface on your FreeNas box. I leave the Port 3260 as default.

4 - Adding an Initiator

Initiator is a client which has authorized access to the storage data on the FreeNAS system. The client requires initiator software to connect to the iSCSI share.

Navigate to Services/iSCSI/Initiators and click on Add Initiator

Leave all the default settings and click OK
Note: I recommend that you specify the addresses of the hosts that need to see your LUN. For this lab I left ALL, this mean any machine in my lab that add the iSCSI Target Server will be able to see this LUN.

5 - Adding a Target

Target is a storage resource on the FreeNAS system.
Navigate to Services/iSCSI/Targets and click on Add Target

Add a Target name and a Target Alias of your choice, here i just used RAID1-320GB to match the Volume Name.

6 - Adding a File Extent

Extent is the storage unit to be shared. It can either be a file or a device.
Navigate to Services/iSCSI/File Extents and click on Add File Extent

7 - Adding a Target / Extent Association

 Navigate to Services/iSCSI/Target Extent and click on Add Target Extent

Select the Target and Extent previously created

8 - Enabling the iSCSI Service

Navigate to Services/Control Services and verify that iSCSI Service is set to ON

And that's it... now you will need to configure the iSCSI Initiator in VMware

Configuring the iSCSI Initiator on VMware vSphere 5.1 

1 - On your VMware Host, select the tab ConfigurationStorage Adapters and click on Add...

2 - Here leave the "Add Software iSCSI Adapter" option and click OK
3 - A warning message will show, click OK :
"A new software iSCSI adapter will be added to the Storage Adapters list. Adter it had been added, select the software iSCSI adapter in the list and click on Properties to complete the configuration."

You'll see the following message while the Software iSCSI Adapter is being added...

Once added, you'll see the iSCSI Software Adapter with the iSCSI IQN of this server
4 - Right click on it and select Properties
5 - You'll see the message "A rescan of the host bus adapter is recommended for this configuration change. Rescan the adapter?". Click Yes
You'll see the above activities in the vsphere client activities window.

6 - Select the Dynamnic Discovery tab and click Add... in the Send Targets area.
Enter the iSCSI Server (which is my FreeNas Server) and leave the default Port 3260. Click OK and click Close to continue.

7 - You will now see the iSCSI LUN presented to your ESXi Server

Thanks for Reading! If you have any questions, leave a comment or send me an email at [email protected] I invite you to follow me on Twitter: @lazywinadm

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